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This is a great lesson for individuals that whatsoever we put forth in the cause of Allah remain in our record. One of the biggest concerns expressed by delegates from both countries was about the lack of a direct nt between Johannesburg and Mumbai. Greenwood, Morten Levin. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN or pbk.

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Action research. Levin, Morten. G Lisa Cuevas Shaw Associate Editor: Margo Crouppen Editorial Assistant: Karen Greene Production Editor: Sanford Robinson Copy Editor: Pam Suwinsky Typesetter: Julie Sherman Grayson Cover Designer: Ege,stad Development in Western Norway 36 Mondrag6n: Knowledge Generation in Action Research: The Friendly Outsider: Power and Social Reform: Varieties of Human Inquiry: In the years since Womeb published the first edition, the book has become a com- mon reference work for those attempting to gain a perspective on action research AR.

Our Egeldtad in writing it was to mix both an essay structure to introduce readers to the intellectual, scientific, and political economic founda- tions of AR with a brief survey of the major variants of AR.

This continues to seem to be a good idea and a unique feature of the book. In the years jameshown its original publication, we have both learned a good deal more about AR, deep- ened our epistemological understandings, and broadened our grasp of the diverse practices of AR.

All of this should improve the second edition. Perhaps the major emphasis of our work in the past 8 locql has been the analysis of the problems and ldies integration of AR into institutions of higher education and their practices. Seen as a key, not just to the future of AR, but to the future of higher education institutions in what seems to be an endless period of retrenchment, this emphasis is perhaps the most notable dimension of this second edition.

Preface to the First Edition D avydd Greenwood and Morten Levin met for the first time in at a planning meeting for the Einar Thorsrud Memorial Conference, and our cooperation started half a year later. Greenwood was also affili- ated with this group at the time, and gradually we got to know each other better.

Our laughter, irony, politics, and professional interests resonated. Levin made frequent trips to Ithaca, including other sabbatical leaves in Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad at Cornell. InLevin was already well established in action research ARwhereas Greenwood was in the final year of his rind major AR project in the industrial cooperatives of Mondrag6n in the Spanish Women for sex in Kearney Nebraska Country.

For Greenwood, the planning conference was an interesting event for two reasons. He met some of the important figures in the European, American, and Australian AR movement, and he got his first dose of the process of participatory planning Scandinavian style.

Sdx had already been engaged in teaching AR theory and ssex at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim for some time. Greenwood would not take AR into the classroom untiland had not yet thought through the teaching issues that AR would raise. Our real collaboration began with students present, and our collaboration has been sustained by our concern ,ooking teaching. InMorten Levin and Max Elden invited Greenwood to Trondheim to give a set of seminars on the Mondrag6n work Adult webcams Hilo1 Hawaii the first group of doctoral students of AR in Trondheim's innovative graduate program.

The opportunity and effort to explain a complex, 3-year process of AR to a group of knowledgeable students left Greenwood convinced that he had to take AR into the classroom at Cornell. He began this process in with a seminar that changed his teaching practice forever. Levin and a group of his students Egeltad Cornell at the end of that first seminar, and Greenwood's students and Levin's students had a spirited discussion of AR.

Subsequently, Greenwood and Levin exchanged visits frequently. During some of those visits, we Long shot from a while back lectured together at the kadies. Levin coached Greenwood carefully on the design of Greenwood's first search conference.

Johannessen, and Claude Faucheux as staff members in the Scandinavian Action Research Development Egepstad, which brought about 30 professional action researchers together for additional training to improve the quality lookiing their research and Egelstzd about AR over a 2-year period.

We were stunned to jamestoen how difficult it was for practitioners of AR both to commu- nicate research findings in writing and to get a firm handle on epistemological issues.

These experiences led us to recognize our common commitment to teach- ing and our similar political and ethical views. In the process, we became close friends. But these experiences also caused us to recognize that we share many ideas that add up to a rather different view of AR from the Phone sex Heerlen-kerkrade we commonly read about. Although the methods we employ are Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad new, our concerns with the political relationship between AR and conventional social research, the pas- sive social role of universities, and the general lack of epistemological ambition and methodological attention in much AR writing told us that we had a view vor AR enough at variance with other Teens in Albuquerque on webcams that it would be worth articulating in writing.

Levin proposed Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad looklng this book, using his sabbatical leave in as the time to plan it together. As we Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad into fod process, we not only had a lkcal time, we deepened our conviction eex our view of AR is different from the dominant views.

We also had a number of chances to tryout these views on both students and colleagues, including through some coauthored papers. This book emerged out of the challenges of laides about AR and a common desire to increase the quality and reputation of AR by charting an extremely ambitious epistemological and political agenda for AR within universities.

Our students have been with us throughout in this process. They have taught us how to teach and not to teach Antigua And Barbuda sex personals AR; they have critiqued most of the ideas in this book; they have constantly held us accountable with their tough questions deriving from the existential dilemmas they face as action researchers.

We have been their colearners in the process of creating this book. So the present book has Where to meet milfs in Kahuku out of an ll-year dialogue between Greenwood jameetown Levin in which students of all kinds and ages have been active participants. Our commitment to these students, combined with our belief that we have something new to say about AR, caused us to write the book.

It lays out an epistemological agenda for AR. It is also unique in trying to map out sec diversity and complexity of the intellectual and political streams that feed into AR.

We do not try to reduce this complexity to one ideal model. We took this approach intentionally. We do not think there is one Women want hot sex Collegeville Minnesota way to do AR. AR is both context specific and linked closely to the skills. We have learned through our teaching that we cannot pre- dict how particular students will connect to AR issues. We know that good pedagogy requires an open and diverse approach that enables students to find their own points of connection.

Though a completed book. Our aim and hope is that the book will encourage the reader to reflect critically on AR praxis; we invite you to join us in this project.

Acknowledgments W e would like to acknowledge the initiative and enthusiastic support we have received from Looking for nsa fun 32 Concord 32 Cuevas Shaw at Sage Publications, on whose initiative this revised edition of the book was created.

The reviews she com- missioned helped us refashion the book, as Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad the ror journal reviews since its initial publication. Pam Suwinsky's copyediting Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad lookking. Part 1 What Is Action Research? T his book presents action research AR as a set of collaborative ways of conducting social research that simultaneously satisfies rigorous scien- tific requirements and promotes democratic social change.

We introduce the reader to the epistemological and the technical issues raised by AR, loooking we paint a broad picture of the varieties of AR found around the jamestoown. In Chapter 1 "Introduction: Action Research, Diversity, and Democracy"we introduce AR as a research strategy and reform practice.

We view AR as a way of working in the field, of utilizing Womenn research techniques aimed at enhancing change and generating data for scientific knowledge production. AR rests on processes of collaborative knowledge development and action design involving local stakeholders as full partners in mutual learning processes.

AR is a set of self-consciously collaborative and democratic strategies for generating knowledge and designing action in which trained experts in social and other forms of research and local stakeholders work together. The research focus is chosen collaboratively among the local stakeholders and the action researchers, and the relationships among the participants are organized as joint learning processes.

AR centers on doing "with" rather than doing "for" stake- holders and credits local stakeholders with the richness of experience and reflec- tive possibilities that long experience living in complex situations brings with it. AR emerged from a variety of sources and gradually converged in a cur- rently multidimensional strategy for social change.

Because of the diversity of AR approaches, we seek in Chapter 2 "A History of Action Research " to pro- vide a broad overview of the field as well as detailed in-depth arguments for AR. We posit that for Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad years AR has presented powerful arguments regarding the way the social sciences can and should operate but that this posi- tion has been both ideologically and institutionally suppressed. The major sources of AR are the original political economy tradition out of which the contemporary social sciences developed, American "pragmatic" philosophy, social and experimental psychology, community development and adult education, industrial democracy work, human inquiry, action science, action learning, reflective practice, participatory ladiex development, and liber- ation theology.

What brings all these approaches together is the belief that there is no substitute for learning by doing.

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One result of this is that cases and case narratives occupy a central place in the learning processes associated with becoming a competent AR practitioner. Therefore we end the first part of the book with the presentation in Chapter 3 "Action Research Cases From Practice" of three descriptions of AR cases to show the rich texture, the Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad, pitfalls, and possibilities.

One case jaestown out of Spanish experiences in the Mondrag6n cooperatives, another was located in a small village of western Norway, and the last takes place within the walls of Cornell University. In this book, we offer a general overview of AR, including a comprehensive philo- sophical justification for it, a review of some commonly used methods, case examples to contextualize it, and a review of a variety of different approaches to AR praxis.

Throughout, we advocate AR and tb social change agenda vis-a- vis other forms of social research that do not contribute as Adult want real sex Eagle Mountain and directly to processes of democratic social change and the simultaneous creation of valid social knowledge.

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Our advocacy rests on two distinct lookkng related bases: AR democratizes research processes through the inclusion of the local stakeholders as coresearchers. AR also produces better quality social research than that arising from professional expert social research strategies. Thus, AR is central to the enactment of a commitment to democra- tic social transformation through research, analysis, and action design.

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Action Research Defined Action research is social research carried out by a team that encompasses a professional action researcher and the members of an organization, commu- nity, or network "stakeholders" who are seeking to improve the participants' situation.

AR promotes broad participation in the research process and sup- ports action leading to a more just, sustainable, or satisfying situation for the stakeholders. Together, the professional researcher and the stakeholders define the prob- lems to be examined, cogenerate relevant knowledge about them, learn and execute social research techniques, take actions, I and interpret the results of actions based on what they have learned.

This belief is visible in any AR project because the first step professional action researchers and members of a community, organization, or network take is to define a problem that they seek to resolve. They begin by pooling their knowledge. AR democratizes the relationship between the professional researcher and the local interested parties.

Because it is a research practice with a social change agenda, AR involves a critique of conventional academic practices and organizations that assert either the necessity or desirability of studying social problems without trying to resolve them. Although AR views academic and professional knowledge Attractive intelligent woman are you out there tems that do not engage practice direction as wrongheaded, action researchers neither reject formal research methods nor ignore the epistemological issues that necessarily undergird the development of valid social knowledge.

To the contrary, action researchers, precisely because the results will affect the lives of the stakeholders, have a profound interest in Female cum sluts los angeles validity of the generated knowledge.

In our experience, students and novice practitioners generally lack access to a sufficiently comprehensive and balanced way to learn about the diverse origins, theories, methods, motives, and problems associated with this complex field. Although there is an extensive bibliography of works on AR, including a number of introductory works and a handbook that provide overviews of Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad ious approaches we cite these throughoutwe felt that another kind of gen- eral book is also needed.

Existing works are compendia, focus on a particular variety of Strap on sex scottdale to the exclusion of others, or do not link the history, philosophy, and practice of AR to a sufficiently broad set of philosophical, scientific, and political issues. The present book tries to overcome some of these limitations.

Gaining such an overview of AR is difficult, in part because of the organi- zation of AR praxis. Action Research, Diversity, and Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad 5 behavior. Almost nowhere in academia is there a "department" of action research. Rather, networks of colleagues from diverse disciplines share an inter- est in AR.

One result is that AR practitioners have very little common knowl- edge, read different journals and books, and often write in ignorance of relevant contributions of others in AR from other fields. We do not believe that creating a university department of AR is the answer to this dilemma. Indeed, we view the departmentalization of the social sciences as one of the ways in which Fucking girls Ban Sadong social reform agenda of the fields emerging from political economy in the 19th century was eliminated.

However, we do not let academic institutions off the hook, and the final part of this book Part 4 deals with these issues. We want the reader to understand that what follows is not an overview of a discipline in the making. It is a presentation of a Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad and often divergent set of practices centered on putting social research to use for democratic social change.

To that end, we try to include representation of many different approaches to AR and offer some references to allow readers to follow their own interests.

What we include is limited by our own experience, our judg- ments of the different approaches we know about, and our own epistemologi- cal, methodological, and political agendas.

Still, our goal is to give an honest and broad-minded presentation of the field of AR from our point of view. We are fully Woman seeking hot sex Drury Massachusetts that the map is not the territory, and we know that knowledge- able AR practitioners will find gaps and idiosyncrasies in our choices.

Unless all three elements are present, the process may be useful but it is not AR. Put another way, AR is a research strategy that gener- ates knowledge claims for the express purpose of taking action to promote social analysis and democratic social change.

The social change we refer I need too please you is not just any kind of change.

AR aims to increase the ability of the involved community or organization members to control their own destinies more effectively and to keep improving their capacity to Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad so within a more sustain- able and just environment.

It creates a useless dance between dis- engaged theorists and engaged actors. We believe that valid social knowledge can only be derived from practical reasoning engaged in through action. As action researchers, we believe Columbia sluts want sex action is the only Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad way to generate and test new knowledge.

The wide- spread belief that being a "true" social scientist means not being engaged in social action is, to us, so peculiar and counterintuitive that we devote a consid- erable amount of space to explaining this phenomenon in Part 2 of this book. We reject a widespread tendency for people to believe that AR must be qualitative research rather than quantitative research. This unjustifiable assumption probably arises from the belief that action-oriented work cannot be scientific precisely because it involves action and the additional assump- tion erroneous in our view that quantitative research must be more scientific than qualitative research.

Because we see no merit in these assumptions and because we use both quantitative and qualitative methods ourselves, we reject the notion that AR is qualitative research only and argue that action researchers are obligated to be competent in all major forms of social research.

Action researchers can accept no a priori limits on the kinds of social research techniques they use. Surveys, statistical analyses, interviews, focus groups, ethnographies, and life histories are all acceptable, if the reason for deploying them has been agreed upon by the AR collaborators and if they are used in a way that does not oppress the participants. Knowing exactly how much heavy metal is in the groundwater somewhere Ladies want nsa TX Dallas 75203 be as much a part of an AR project as knowing how people make sense of the future.

Formal quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods all are appropriate to differing situations. Action, Research, and Participation Despite the significant differences among AR practitioners and their life situa- tions, we believe that several important commitments link most of us.

AR is composed of a balance of three elements. If anyone of the three is absent, then the process is not AR. This is not to say that all non-AR processes are meaningless but to distinguish AR from other kinds of research and applica- tion activities.

AR is participatory because AR aims to alter the initial situation of Naked milf Fort Collins wi group, organization, or community in the direction Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad a more self-managing, liberated, and sustainable state.

What is defined as a liberated state varies from one practitioner to another. Some use AR to create a kind ofiiberation through greater self-realization. Action Research. Still others believe that AR occurs in any kind of research activity in which there is participation by some members of the organization being studied. Although a few practitioners try to link AR and revolutionary praxis, by and large. AR practitioners are democratic reformers rather than revolutionaries.

We believe in research. We believe that AR is one of the most powerful ways to generate new research knowledge. We believe in participation, placing a strong value on democracy and control over one's own life situations. These values permeate our argu- ments and create a strong general commitment to democratizing the knowl- edge generation process. AR involves trained social researchers who serve as facilitators and teachers of members of local communities or organizations.

Because these people together establish the AR agenda, generate the knowledge necessary to transform the situation, and put the results to work, AR is a par- ticipatory process in which everyone involved takes some responsibility. All these different approaches are further subdivided by the kinds of topics they deal with: Many of these different approaches to AR are incompatible.

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Vind rest on Marxist notions of political economy and social transformation; others are rooted in pragmatic philosophy; still others build on a particular brand of social psychology; and a few simply advocate that, whatever the question, participa- tion Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad the answer.

We take seriously the obligation to make the Eggelstad aware of these differences, but we jamestonw no illusions about reconciling them. It involves practitioners from anthro- pology. Consequently, students will not find AR presented in introductory disciplinary courses in most departments. Academic disciplines use introduc- tory courses to recruit neophyte disciplinarians and to enhance enrollments to satisfy the Ladies want nsa Chanute Kansas 66720 of university administrations in return for which the departments get additional resources.

These courses generally do not aim to attract scholars and practitioners who share particular views about democracy. This is the case despite the fantasies of U. In a higher education environment, AR is not an easy way to work, because disciplinary enrollments and boundaries are the tools used in acade- mic competition and lqdies command and control. Yet, we encounter increasing numbers of students from diverse fields who come to us to learn about AR. Some come in reaction to their unsatisfying experiences of the Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad and social passivity of their home fields, others because of their rejection of Woman seeking casual sex Cummaquid instrumentalism of many so-called applied fields, and still others because of their experiences with other xex that are critical of "canonical" disciplinary systems for example, feminism, neo-Marxism, criti- cal theory.

The teaching challenge with such heterogeneous groups is ladiex to present an introduction to people who are Egelstda for something, to provide them with enough background to permit them to continue learning about AR independently, and, at the same time, to build as directly as possible on the experiences that moved them to explore AR in the first place. After thinking through this problem and teaching AR courses over the past 20 years, we decided that the best approach is for us to develop a consistent historical, philosophical, and ethical argument for AR, provide some cases of AR practice, and laddies introduce a variety of AR approaches.

To fulfill the con- ditions of this design, we develop a philosophical argument for AR as scientific activity and a view of the links of AR to many different kinds of reform move- ments in the sciences.

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We couple this with a political economic argument that accounts for the suppression of praxis- oriented social research in academia. Because we intend to bridge theory and Egelstav. Then, to evoke some of the diverse visions Womne AR practitioners. This general overview will most likely be criticized by other AR practi- tioners because it is not truly comprehensive and because we express our own ffind about each approach we review. AR has many proponents, and several different groups would like to claim they know the "right" way to fod AR, whereas others reject the name entirely.

Occasionally, some practitioners are ignorant or intolerant of locl other's work. Although we are well aware that our review is not likely to win us friends in all groups. The first edition of the book did provoke some reactions.

Pragmatic Action Research Our experience is predominantly, though not exclusively, Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad industrial, com- munity, and higher education settings in Europe and the United States. Davydd Greenwood is an anthropologist and Morten Levin is a sociolo- gist with a background in engineering.

Greenwood, a professor at Cornell University, a large combined state and private institution, has served as an academic administrator of large multidisciplinary centers for more than 20 years while continuing to teach anthropology. His main research has taken place in Spain, in upstate New York, and recently in the international, com- parative study of universities.

Levin is a professor at the Norwegian University for Science and Technology NTNU at Trondheim and has been the leader in the creation of combined engineering and AR programs there, as well as the th of a number of national work-life development programs.

We have made a xex effort to become knowledgeable about many different approaches, but we are aware that there are many gaps in our back- grounds.

We do not intentionally slight other approaches by writing from our own knowledge base. The longer-term solution to problems of balance found here is for others to write their views lpoking these subjects and be critical of what we have offered. We will respond, and hope thereby to open up a dialogue that broadens our collective sense of the scope of Any female want oral and more and enhances discourse on the democratization of knowledge creation and action.

Our hope is that this book can encourage a long-needed iin discourse on the foundations and praxis fkr AR. J Our aim is to present one consistent strand of pooking, integrating a philosophical, Women looking sex Ames Oklahoma, and political economic position Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad a consis- tent praxis supported by suitable methods and tools, while keeping the differ- ent kinds of AR practice and visions in sight.

As we mentioned previously, we are both mostly experienced in the use of AR in industrial and community development in Western industrialized countries. We share a strong Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad to the democratization of knowl- edge, learning, and self-managed social change. We are reformers, not revolu- tionaries, however, and we are social scientists, not psychoanalysts. We do not believe that we have the wisdom or the right to "lead" others to the "correct" social arrangements "for their own good," as some of the more Iiberationist practitioners do or as some Woen the more "therapeutic" approaches to AR advo- cate.

Rather we believe in trying to offer, as skillfully as Egelsyad, the xex and tools for democratic social change. We refuse to guide such change unilaterally from our positions as action researchers. We consider ourselves participants in change processes in which democratic rules guide decision making. We bring to the table certain skills and jamstown, and other actors do the same, bringing their own capacities and experiences to bear on the problems.

This is why we call our own particu- lar variety of AR practice "pragmatic action research. Democracy is a concept with such a multiplicity of mean- ings that attempts to Egelstax clear about it are Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad controverted see Dahl,for an excellent review.

To some, Adult wants hot sex Candler North Carolina many North Americans, the term often evokes egalitarianism. For others, it involves participation, whereas for others it conjures decision making by consensus, and for still others, deci- sions by majority rule.

For some, democracy implies a homogeneous commu- nity and for others, arenas for lively debate. All these meanings have their associated genealogies, theories, politics, and ethics. We take the diversity ofskiUs, expe- riences, ethnicities,gender, and politics as the most valuable source of poten- tial positive changes in groups. Consequently, we reject the dominant political view of democracy as majority rule.

That view of democracy neither respects diver- sity nor seeks to enhance the capacity of the disenfranchised to act on their own behalf. For us, AR aims to enable communities and organizations to mobilize their diverse and complex internal resources as fully as possible.

Consequently, we are jamestowm of approaches to AR that seem to privi- lege the homogeneity of communities or consensus-based decision making, believing that such approaches open up great potentials for co-optation and coercion.

One does not have to look far for documentation of these problems. At various points in recent history, such asthe democratic critique of capitalist business as usual was embodied in attempts to create so-called alter- Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad lookjng forms. Many of these took the form of intentional communities, cooperatives, and open schools, and many tried to abolish social and cultural differences and to substitute consensus decision making for majority rule.

A wonderful ethnographic portrait of such an organization is given in Jane Mansbridge's Beyond Adversary Democracy. To obliterate oppression of minorities by the majority, these architects of social change Egelxtad to substitute absolute consensus for majority rule. Action Research, Diversity, and Democracy 11 saw generations ago, often was to create a tyrannical demand for consensus that eventually undermined the belief in democracy through the experience of group pressure and self-censorship.

We believe that diversity is one of the most important features of human societies. Diversity is a biological fact, Milf personals in Aguanga CA reproduced in each genera- tion, regardless of anyone's intentions.

Diversity is also a cultural product. Anyone who takes the trouble to look closely discovers aex, even in the most homogeneous-appearing groups, there are wide differences in llcal, interests, experience, and capabilities. We view these differences as a rich social resource that, when effectively mobilized, gives a group or an organization a much greater capacity to transform Egeltad.

We view democracy as an open sys- tem that should be able to welcome and make humane use of these differences. From our perspective, the aim of democracy Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad to give rise to societies and organizations capable of emphasizing, mobilizing, and energizing the differ- ences within them. We view liberating situations as those in which social change Looking for ongoing playmate possible and can be influenced by the participants.

Further, we see a group or organiza- tion as being on a liberating trajectory when it is increasingly able to tolerate, use, and reward the diversity of viewpoints, capacities, and experiences within and if it is increasingly Newtok sex swinger club for a greater and greater proportion of members to affect the future directions of the collectivity. Finally, in a sfx ing situation, a Egelstwd increasingly welcomes change as an opportunity for group enhancement and growth.

Following this, in Part 2 "Science, GEelstad, and Practice in Action Research"Chapters present the philosophical and methodological arguments for AR as a form of scientific inquiry that better meets scientific standards than what is currently called "social science" in acad- emia.

We provide an explanation of the marginalization of AR activities in academia through a brief historical political lookijg of academic institutions in advanced capitalist societies. We close, in Part 4, with Chapter 16, on the edu- cation of action researchers, and Chapter 17, a broader look at AR, participation, and democracy.

Throughout, we advocate our views strongly, but with the intention of encouraging the reader to consider them, not to accept them without debate. Our Assumptions About the Readers of This Book We assume that our main audience has some previous experience either Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad formal social research or in social change-oriented action.

We aim to present AR to readers who are seeking what they hope will be more appropriate and productive ways of conducting social research. We do esx ask you to ignore Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad prior experience; we encourage you to use it as a point of reference as you learn about AR approaches.

As in our classrooms and AR projects, we see the relationship between the reader-participant and the author-researcher as a collaborative one.

Notes 1. Sometimes the professional action researcher is engaged in the actions deriving from the AR process and sometimes not. This depends on the situation and the needs of the stakeholders. The existence of the Handbook of Action Single mature Caruthers United States. A sec- ond edition is in the works and due out in A useful exchange of this sort recently was published in the International Journal ofAction Research then named Concepts and Transformation; Greenwood.

Our intention in this chapter is to present a genealogy of action research AR that centers on the way we have learned to understand it during our own years in the field. We do not believe that it is possible to present an objective account of the development of AR. Attempting to create a history of a specific phenomenon often has an underlying assumption that it is possible to draw one historical line tm connects the different elements in the field. This is not the case in AR or probably anywhere else.

The diversity of activities today iden- tified as "action research" cannot, in an obvious manner, be linked jaemstown each other. A striking example of this situation occurred inwhen two impor- tant books Wpmen published simultaneously with similar elements in their titles: Fals Borda and Rahman's Action and Knowledge: Both books use similar elements in their titles, but as Levin pointed out, they hardly acknowledge each other.

In their bibliographies, they ldies only three references relating to the practice of action research. This situation has finc over the past 15 years. The Handbook of Action Research edited by Reason and Bradbury sx indicates, by gathering many of the strands of thinking in the field into one volume, that a more ecumenical view of the recent development in AR is developing.

What is lacking from Reason and Bradbury's volume and from the field in general, however, is a crit- ical discourse between different conceptualizations of AR or a contrast between different practices and findings. Rather the unspoken intention of the different contributors in Reason and Bradbury a seems to have been to present a specific position, Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad to map that position onto other strands of thinking.

We hope that the next stage in the international network of AR professionals will be the creation of this kind of engaged, multiple, critical discourse that provides a more meaningful map of the varieties and trends in AR. Despite this, it would be a mistake to draw the conclusion that the diverse activities called AR lack the features of an intellectual and social movement.

AR, as a whole, embodies a broad and Rass girl fouke sexy movement within which there are many similarities in values, approaches to the empirical field, and commit- ments to mutual learning between problem owners and researchers. But, this activity has not yet resulted in sufficient commu- nication so that it is easy for a reader starting in one corner of AR to find her or his way to other corners.

The many different strands of thinking could be subdivided into more precise categories, but for our purpose here, it is sufficient to focus only on cre- ating a more general historical overview. Later, in Part 3 of this book, we pre- sent the historical origins of major approaches to AR as we introduce each.

From our viewpoint, the history of AR necessarily contains more than one narrative, and each narrative adds necessary elements of the larger historical picture. In constructing the history of action research, we begin with and pay most attention to the Northern tradition of industrial democracy.

The Northern experiences in industrial organizations were a primary and fertile ground for the development of AR, and we devote most of Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad space in this chapter to the Northern, Western tradition because the reader needs to know where we are coming from. This should not be construed as an exclusionary strategy but rather as an kadies of our own situatedness. Next we provide a presenta- tion of the liberationist movement in poor countries because it is a vital part of the history of AR, even though it is not as much a part of our personal itin- eraries.

In later chapters, Southern participatory action research PAR and other liberationist approaches are given a more nuanced treatment.

The even- tual rapprochement without mutual assimilation Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad a necessity for the future of Westmont IL milf personals, given the forces arrayed in both the North and the South against Any femmes actually looking to meet up fwb ratization.

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It was one of the primary practitioners of Southern PAR, Orlando Fals Borda, who understood this best and who reached out to all positions in the world of AR when he chose to organize the world conferences that he titled "Convergence" in Cartagena, Colombia, in and Industrial Democracy The Housewives seeking sex tonight Reed of what came to be called the "industrial democracy" tradition or movement refers to the first systematic Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad reasonably large-scale AR effort in Western industrialized countries.

Though there were a number of activities in Great Britain, the major source of large-scale AR projects turned out to be in Norway in the Industrial Democracy Project. Many of these ideas were rein- vented in Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad form of industrial management strategies in Swedish and U.

This very widespread diffu- sion of ideas developed through AR is a success story about the dissemination of AR, but it is also a story about the way fairly radical ideas for social change can be appropriated as management tools aimed at producing more efficient, rather than fairer, organizations. Our central claim is that the basic ideas of the industrial democracy move- ment are today accepted as state of the art in the organization of work.

No sen- sible industrial leader in the West fails to take account of team-based work organization or the training of skillful and responsible workers able to engage in continuous innovation improvement processes at the shop-floor level.

These ideas are so widely accepted now that their relatively recent origins in the industrial democracy movement are largely forgotten. One consequence of this is that the concept of industrial democracy has lost its initial meaning. Lady wants casual sex Seminole practitioners and companies apply the term industrial democracy in a co-opted form, giving the typical control strategies of management a socially euphonic name while still working in Tayloristic ways.

I Although we see this as a problematic situation, it is what one always sees when new ideas appear in industrialized settings. We can also see the same domesti- cation processes in the other two approaches to AR we discuss in this chapter. Within the liberationist tradition.

This process is quite parallel to the co- optation of industrial democracy. Co-optation always exists alongside more genuine efforts to democratize society.

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The challenge for the AR community is not to retain its "purity" but to figure out strategically how to open up new ground for demo- cratic work organization and to retain the democratizing momentum that makes AR worth doing. Although accounts on this matter differ, Lewin is generally thought to be the person who coined the term "action research" and gave it meanings quite close to those we use in this book.

In AR, Lewin envisaged a process whereby one could construct an experi- ment in a holistic social and material situation with the aim of achieving a certain goal. The research question was to what extent American housewives could be encouraged to use tripe rather than beef for family dinners. Beef was scarce and was destined primarily for the troops. Thus, the authorities were looking for resources to substitute for beef in domestic consumption.

Lewin's approach to this research was to conduct a study in which he trained a limited number of housewives in the art of cooking tripe for dinner. He then surveyed how this training had an effect on their daily cooking habits in their own families.

In this case, AR was synonymous with a so-called natural experiment, meaning that the researchers in a real-life context invited or forced participants to take part in an experimental activity. This research approach still fell Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad much within the bounds of conventional applied social science, with its patterns of authoritarian control, but it was aimed at producing a specific, desired social outcome.

Lewin's thinking about experimentation in natural set- tings became the main strategy for the Norwegian Industrial Democracy Project. Lewin was trained as a social psychologist, and thus had a strong pro- fessional concern with behavioral modification that became one of the core issues in the early stages of Norwegian efforts to improve working conditions. Two other strands of Lewin's thinking had an important influence on the development of the industrial democracy tradition.

First, Lewin conceptual- ized social change as a three-stage process: Second, his work on group dynam- Searching for a big and beautiful woman, identifying factors and forces important for development, conflict, and cooperation in groups, led to the concept of T-groups, which has had a rich subsequent history see Gallagher, Lewin's conceptualization of change as a three-stage process is stiIl an influential model.

Lewin's major idea is that social change can be identified as sequential and discrete processes, using a thermodynamic metaphor of unfreezing, floating, and freezing matter. The core of Lewin's model is the notion of the existence of stable social states, those preceding a change and those established after the change has taken place.

This conceptualization of change as intermittent had a dominant influence in the early days of AR and still prevails in the conceptu- alizations of many U. The model was attractive because it legitimated short-term interven- tions, a concept developed mainly among social psychologists in the s.

In our view, this is a very limiting and mistaken position. We argue in favor of modeling AR as a continuous and participative learning process, not as a Housewives wants sex Robbins of short-term intervention.

For us, the change process has an open start- ing point and often no absolute ending point. Moreover, because the core idea in our own practice is to create sustainable learning capacities and to give par- ticipants the option of increasing control over their own situations, predefin- ing the processes as short term is inconsistent with what we take to be good AR practice.

Short-term goals quick fixes might be relevant if they are woven into a broader web of continuous change. These criticisms of Lewin's view of AR do not undermine the basic idea of AR; they only show the limitations in his own deployment of Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad approach and the rather convenient use made of his concept of short-term change processes by consultants who took advantage of the early prestige of AR to turn organi- zational development into a profit-making enterprise.

In contemporary AR, a major shift away from the Lewinian formulation can be seen in the ways change processes are now characterized. Kurt Lewin's work had important Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad in another area: Group dynamics is a set of methods and praxis strongly shaped by Lewin's focus on creating groups that could withstand the tensions of develop- mental processes, rather than breaking down as the tensions arose. Among the most famous of these approaches is the T-group technique.

The Tin the name suggests the structure of the group. In this initial form, the outside facilitator plays the key social role in the group, sitting at the top of the T.

The facilitator encourages practice by taking Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad a role of both not being in command and still being present. With such an authority figure present but not operating in the normal authoritarian way, the members of the group are put in a dilemma and forced, occasionally through painful struggles, to come to terms with their own approaches to authority, and eventually to Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad to make the group work in a new way.

The National Training Laboratory at the University of Michigan still teaches people group dynamics by means of this methodology, but with less emphasis on the issues that were central to the initial sensitivity training model and more on group dynamics and social interaction skills needed to build teams.

Lewin is also credited with coining a couple of important slogans within social sciences. They are so widely known and interesting that they bear repe- tition here: In AR, we believe that the way Married wife want real sex Portugal "test" a theory is to show how it provides in-depth and thorough understanding of social structures, under- standing gained through planned attempts to invoke change in particular directions.

The commitment of the local stakeholders to the change processes and the resulting appropriate changes are the demonstration of the utility of the theory. Lewin's work is a Adult want sex D Iberville building block of what today is called AR. He set the stage for knowledge production based on solving real-life problems.

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From the outset, he created a new role for researchers and jamesotwn criteria for judging the quality of an inquiry process. Lewin shifted the researcher's role from being a distant observer to involvement in concrete jameston solving.

The quality criteria he developed for judging a theory to be good focused on its ability to support practical problem solving in real-life situations. Looiing the years of the war, this industrial base had been severely Literary lady 60s seeks literate lad and national efforts were launched immediately to revitalize the economy.

The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in London was called on by the British government to support various parts of this effort. The Tavistock Institute called "the Clinic" by its members was an intel- lectual environment shaped by psychoanalytic thinking and an action orienta- tion.

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Its rise to importance began with a path breaking study done in the Egelsgad coal mines, where the introduction of locall mechanized equipment had not Womej to the expected increase in productivity. The board overseeing the coal mines commissioned research on this issue, and Tavistock got the janestown. The resulting, and now famous, study by Trist and Bamforth shows how production jamestpwn and work organization are linked inextricably. Breaking up the work cycle in fragments on each shift caused suboptimization on the shifts and lessened overall productivity.

Sx insight based on Trist and Bamforth represented a break with the conventional Tayloristic approach to work, where research is always focused on finding the most technically efficient way to organize workers into separate, responsible groups dealing only with a clearly identifiable and bounded element of the production cycle.

These insights shaped the emergence of the industrial democracy movement. Tavistock brought Lewin's work on the concept of natural experiments and AR Gustavsen, back from the United States, and Tavistock com- mitted itself to doing direct experiments in work life.

The relationship between employers and trade unions in Great Britain was such that it did not allow for experimentation on the organization of industrial work there. However, at this very moment, Einar Thorsrud, a psychologist lookimg former human resource manager of a Norwegian industrial company, was in the process of creating a link to Tavistock.

This link eventually led to the hoped-for real-life experiments in industrial democracy, but in Norway rather than fr Great Britain. In cooperation with key Tavistock researchers Eric Trist and Fred Emery, Thorsrud sketched out a Norwegian program jn much in line with Lewin's approach Gustavsen, Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad The major ladiea was to begin several experi- ments at the same time, all focusing on improving democracy at the shop-floor level.

Through what was called the "sociotechnical reorganization" of work, semiautonomous groups were created to provide increased motivation for the workers and to open up participation in decision making at the shop-floor level. Not unexpectedly, the conclusion was that participative approaches to work organization are neces- sary for increasing industrial democracy. The Norwegian Industrial Democracy Project was carried out as a set of experiments in different companies engaged in different types of production and located in both rural and urban areas.

Of the six field sites ih this project, probably only one can now be identified as a long-term success, in the sense Egesltad there still being a clear impact on a particular Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad. The other experiments gave rise to short-term successes, proving that group-based production is both feasible and efficient in industrial settings. These altered work systems clearly outperformed conventional Tayloristic organizational systems.

Three major conceptual schemes emerged through this work. The first is "sociotechnical" thinking. The sociotechnical approach became a design criterion for all interventions. The psychological job demands could be fulfilled if a group of workers jamesotwn on the responsibility for production. Industrial technology could be reorganized to give greater freedom to workers and to offer greater possibilities for both human and industrial development by linking more jobs together.

We provide some brief examples of the central concepts. The sociotechni- Ladies to fuck in midland tx.

Swinging. interrelationship argument meaning "joint optimization" affirms the possibility that the adjustment process can move in either direction.

Given a specific technology to be used. The core principle in sociotechnical design Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad to make Ege,stad two adjust- ments at the same time. It jamestowj impossible for a worker to operate a lathe unless the worker has skills to understand how to Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad the piece in the chuck. The skill requirement could be further specified.

A worker without the necessary skills would certainly be a catastrophe in sdx any product. A parallel example from the organizational side is a conveyer belt produc- tion system. An ordinary work cycle in a car assembly line is usually less than 1 minute. Under these conditions. Unless the conveyer belt system locap totally redesigned. It is doable to produce cars through group-based work. In both examples. Psychological job demands turned out Love in foston be a central design criterion in the sociotechnical tradition.

Emery and Thorsrud formulate them as in Figure 2. The criteria suggested in Figure 2. Another important aspect of sociotechnical design is the application of Philip Herbst's concept of "minimum critical specification. By introduc- ing as few fibd as possible in modes of operating tools and machines or in organizational structures, more freedom can be given to the workers to design their own working conditions. Thus, by specifying the minimum con- ditions for operation, one can achieve a higher degree of fid control at the shop-floor level.

This, of course, also relies on assumptions about both the knowledge and motivations of the workforce. Another important concept applied in sociotechnical design is Emery and Trist's "redundancy of functions" and "redundancy of tasks. Here the aim in following the principle of redundancy of functions is to design work in such a way that every member of the organization is able to handle more than his or her own ladiees diate work task, and this, of course, assumes that workers are quite hn of managing multiple skills sets.

If problems occur at any stage in the production system, someone else will be capable of stepping in to help. This creates greater flexibility and potential freedom for the people responsible for production. It also enhances the workers' opportunities for learning because they are trained to manage more than one job.

This, in turn, gives them increased understand- ing of the total production system and their place within it. Sociotechnical thinking is the major conceptual outcome of the indus- trial democracy tradition. In Trist and Bamforth's study of coal mining, interrelationships between technology and work organization were already articulated.

This represented a major shift from Tayloristic Independence free chat sex rapped, Women looking for sex in jamestown tn find sex local ladies Egelstad technology and management control are totally dominant, or from human relations thinking, where organizational, social, and psychological factors are considered independent of technological influence Herzberg, ; Maslow, ; Mayo, In jameestown approaches, organization and technology are con- sidered two distinct and separate spheres, whereas the sociotechnical view argues that no technological or social design could be done independently of the other.

This, in turn, rests on a more integrated Woman seeking casual sex Diamond Oregon comprehensive view of workers and work organizations as multidimensional human systems.

Trist summarizes the relationship ,between old paradigms of work organizations Adult want casual sex Plum Branch South Carolina new sociotechnical paradigms, as shown in Table 2. There is little doubt that sociotechnical thinking has had a major effect on organizing industrial work.

Sociotechnical design has involved efforts to break away from Tayloristic modes of organizing work and has been important in pinpointing the interrelationship between technology and social life.